In-Depth Knowledge About Colorectal Surgery

There are different types of colorectal surgeries happen all over the world and that are-Colectomy, Colostomy, Endoscopic Surgery, Hemorrhoidectomy, Ileal Pouch Anal Anastomosis (J-Pouch), Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) Surgery, Internal Sphincterotomy, Rectopexy, and Resection. The article will discuss about the types in detai, find out more here at Dr Mark Wong’s colorectal surgery page.


It is a resection of colon and in this process the surgeon removes the parts of large intestine. It is also done in three different ways.

  • Segmental Colectomies: In this type the surgeon does a vertical incision in the abdomen. The problematic part of the intestine that is related to bowel system is removed during the surgery.
  • Polypectomy: In this surgery the cancerous polys are removed and the entire surgery is done by a colonoscope. The devise is inserted into the abdomen during the time of surgery.
  • Total Proctocolectomy: in this surgery the entire colon is removed from the body and after that a new pouch is formed to run the bowel system.


In this type the surgeon create a hole in the patient’s abdomen to open the wall and then pills one of the ends of the colon through it. The surgery changes the procedure of excretion of waste and the body takes a little time to get used with the new change. There are two types of Colostomy surgery is performed by the doctors.

  • Temporary colostomies- It is done very rarely in some specific condition as the colon is reattach at the end of the surgery. After healing of the surgical wound a reverse procedure is performed.
  • Permanent colostomies- This one is done when the patient is suffering from chronic diseases.

Endoscopic Surgery

In this kind of surgery a pipe with a camera and light attached with it is inserted in the patient’s body. This enables the surgeon see the inside picture of the colon and by seeing the inside view the surgery is performed. In this case no major incision is done. 


In this surgery the patient is give local anesthesia and the portion around the anus is cut and to remove the hemorrhoids.

Ileal Pouch Anal Anastomosis

It is also known as J-pouch surgical procedure as a pouch is formed at the end of the small intestine and attaches it with the anus. This is done when the patient goes through the removal of large intestine.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) Surgery

It is done when the surgeon removes the colon to cure the ulcerative colitis. It helps to reduce he colon cancer.

Internal Sphincterotomy

The surgery requires treating the tearing of the anus that is called fissures. In this case the local anesthesia is done.


In order to treat the rectal prolapse the surgery is done and it done with mild rectal issues. You need to keep in mind that this surgery does not do much betterment of your body.


This surgery is done to remove all or some parts of the organ. There are five types of  resection are done and they are Abdominoperineal (Rectal) Resection, Small Bowel Resection, Low Anterior Resection, Laparoscopic Colon Resection, and Local Full-Thickness Resection of the Rectum.

A Comprehensive Guide to Colorectal Cancer

In the field of medicine, abnormal growth of cancer is considered to be the most severe and life-threatening ones. Colorectal cancer is one of the severe colorectal diseases that people suffer from around the world. This article comprehensively points out the types, symptoms, and treatments of colorectal cancer through colorectal surgery and therapies.

What is colorectal cancer?

Colorectal cancer involves either colon or rectum. Cancer that takes place in the colon is known as colon cancer, and cancer that occurs in the rectal is known as rectal cancer.

How does colorectal cancer take place?

Due to the initial formation of malignant cells, which are also known as cancer cells in the tissues of the colon, colorectal cancer occurs. It mainly takes place in the rectum of the large intestine. Due to the abnormal growth of tissues on the inner walls of the colon and rectum, colorectal cancer occurs in a human body. The tissues that form rapidly both in colon and rectum can be found as polyps, the size of which is similar to a mushroom. Polyps keep on growing in size while remaining attached to the colon wall of a thin stalk.

What are the types of colorectal cancer?

A large percentage of all colorectal cancer in the human body covers by adenocarcinomas of the colon and rectum area. Colon and rectal adenocarcinomas form in the cells of the large intestine and start with the growth of polyps. A notable polyp called adenoma mainly causes cancer. Unlike Colorectal adenocarcinoma, that is a severe colorectal cancer, gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors, and stromal tumors, leiomyosarcomas, colorectal lymphomas, and melanomas are other significant types of colorectal cancer. On the left side of the colon, most colorectal cancer occurs. Left-sided cancer causes partial blockage and mainly contracts bowel channel.

What are the top symptoms of colorectal cancer?

Colorectal cancer may be a mild or life-threatening one. All of it depends on the primary symptoms like diarrhea, constipation, fatigue, and vomiting. One can go for diagnosis if found with pain and bloating in the abdomen, blood in stools, a lump in the tummy, improper bowel movement, weight loss, and deficiency of iron after menopause.

What are the potential treatments for colorectal cancer?

To carry out proper treatments of colorectal cancer, doctors prefer potential surgical options like bowel and liver resection and lung adrenal or ovarian resection. Also, the professionals conduct top therapies like chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, gene therapy, etc.

How to avoid the risk of developing severe colorectal cancer?

Colon cancer and rectal cancer are common in today’s time; a large number of people in Singapore are becoming affected with time. It is highly recommended to consult top colorectal surgeons to carry out effective treatments to get rid of cancer in the first stage. To avoid the risk of developing severe colorectal cancer, one should keep them in proper check and take good notice of the primary symptoms from the early stage. By leveraging the advanced tools and technology, colorectal surgeons are playing a significant role in executing proper treatment of colorectal cancer.

Effective Ways to Treat Colorectal Diseases

The field in medicine dealing with disorders of the rectum, anus, and colon, is called proctology. However, it is widely known as colorectal surgery in Singapore and as well as all over the world.

How severe is colorectal disease?

The severity of colon and rectal diseases varies from mildly problematic to life-threatening and causes a wide range of illnesses. If the colon and rectal diseases are not treated in time, these can severely impact and leads to more death.

Who should treat colon and rectal diseases?

Colon and rectal diseases have similarities to several other medical conditions; hence, it is ideal to consult expert colon and rectal doctors for comprehensive and safe treatment of colorectal diseases. Many a time it happens that colon and rectal diseases if treated in time by specialized doctors can help improve the survival rate and lead patients to get rid of colorectal cancer effectively.

What are the significant colon and rectal diseases?

Colorectal cancer 

If not more, almost about 150,000 people have colorectal cancer per year in the South Asian countries, especially in Singapore. If detected and treated early, then also colorectal cancer leads to the death of 55,000 severely colorectal cancer affected patients.

Ulcerative Colitis 

More than four to five lakhs of people have ulcerative colitis, which is an inflammatory disease of the large intestine. Most of the people under 30 in Singapore suffer from ne of these colorectal diseases that can severely increase the possibility of developing large bower cancer.

Crohn’s Disorder 

Chron’s is one of the severe chronic inflammatory symptoms that involve the intestinal tract. Chron’s disease significantly affects individuals between 20-40 years old.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome 

Being one of the common intestinal muscle functioning diseases, Irritable Bowel Syndrome involves constipation, diarrhea, or an amalgamation of both. The condition causes severe pains, cramps, and bloating in adults primarily.


The presence of pockets in the colon wall causes terrible trouble to aged people. The inflammation of these pockets causes diverticulosis. The disease also happens due to infection in diverticula or the pockets.


A considerable number of people suffer from hemorrhoids, which is one of the most common colorectal disorders. People over the age of 30-35 years across America and Asia suffer mostly from symptomatic Hemorrhoids. Also, many people in Singapore suffer from external hemorrhoids that form near the anus and unpleasantly swell due to the development of blood clots.


Due to hard, dry movement of bowel, inflammation of the anorectal part, or severe diarrhea, anal fissure occurs, which is a small tear in the interlining of the anus. The majority of the people in their life suffer from this type of colorectal disease, which leads to excessive pain, bleeding, and itching of the outer part of the anus.

Bowel Incontinence 

The impaired ability to control gas and release stool is called bowel incontinence. The incontinence in bowel movement happens primarily due to weakened muscle of the anal, which may cause by childbirth or old age. Due to severe nerve injury or muscle issues, bowel incontinence disorder can trouble people immensely as they grow old.

What Happens When a Meniscus Injury Needs Surgery?

After the doctor has exhausted all kinds of treatment, yet you are still in excruciating pain at the knee area, the doctor may suggest that you undergo an MRI test. An MRI test is useful when an injury happens to soft tissues or affects your nervous system, and your meniscus falls into the former category. MRI test is an important step before a decision to do a meniscus surgery is made.

MRI Test for Meniscus Injury

Based on the MRI result, the doctor has about 70 to 90 percent accuracy regarding the extent of your meniscus injury. Intact meniscus is shown black in the MRI imaging. If there is a tear, it appears white. This is how the doctor determines whether your meniscus is indeed injured or not, and how serious generally.

Meniscus injury can be categorised into several grades. Grade 1 and 2 injuries cannot be seen clearly in an MRI image, meaning that the injury is not severe and may have a good chance to heal itself fully with proper rest and therapy. However, if it is Grade 3 and clearly indicated in the MRI image, the doctor might want to investigate further.

Arthroscopic Investigations

This is when the doctor makes use of an instrument called arthroscope. Comes into being from two Greek words ’arthron’ and ‘skopein’ which means ‘joint’ and ‘look at’, the function of the instrument is to look at the injured joint. Arthroscope does this with the help of a small camera and light source at the end of it, and by attaching its cable to a small TV-like screen, the doctor is able to see the injured meniscus up close.

However, to use this instrument, the doctor needs to make small incision on your knee to enable the arthroscope to be inserted into the area where the meniscus is. By using this instrument, the doctor can finally see in real how extensive the damage or tear is to your meniscus, and at the same time, the repair or treatment of your knee can begin. So, this two-in-one technique can save time and avoid inflicting several times of pain at the injured location. It is also less risky and far less invasive than open surgery:

Different Types of Surgeries for Meniscus Repair

There are three ways a doctor may do a surgery to your torn meniscus, all possible through the same arthroscopic incision. The doctor will do basic arthroscopic repair if the tear is repairable by stitching. A type of absorbable stitch is used so that the doctor does not need to reopen the incision and remove the stitches later.

The second and third types of surgery is partial and total meniscectomy. As with other treatments requiring ‘-ectomy’ or removal of the affected area, partial meniscectomy means the doctor needs to remove a small portion of your meniscus to give chance for your knee to gain its full function again. While for total meniscectomy, unfortunately the whole of meniscus needs to be removed by the doctor.

In conclusion, the patients who need to undergo meniscus surgery have no cause to worry because it is low risk. Serious complications are almost unheard of, which means it is rare. The common precaution after surgery applies, such as taking care of the incision area to avoid infection and having proper rest.

Understanding Meniscus Injuries, Tears and Surgery

Our knee has its own shock absorbers and stabilisers. It is a pair of cartilage called meniscus, or in plural, menisci. The weight of our body is dispersed through this cartilage and it also prevents friction during our bodily movement.

If you ask where it is in our body, it is not obvious like our ankle. This C-shaped soft tissue connects our thigh bone to our shin bone and its location is considerably hidden, surrounding the kneecap bone, immediately below it. Due to its location, usually serious injuries or tears to menisci will lead to a knee surgery.

How Can Someone Get a Meniscus Injury or Tear?

When we get older it is common that the tissues and bones all over our body wear down, including at the area of our knee. Even ordinary movement and body position such as kneeling, heavy-lifting and squatting can pose certain risk of injury to the elderly.

In cases of younger people, usually athletes who undergo rigorous training, participate in sports that require much contacts between players like hockey, football or rugby, and those who take part in vigorous recreational activities like hiking or climbing, are in serious risks of meniscus tear or injury. When the knee must bear burden more than it can take, meniscus tears and injuries may occur.

What Happens When Our Meniscus Gets Injured?

There are signs and symptoms that we should be aware of when we suspect our meniscus is injured. We may feel a popping sensation in our knee. We may also feel that our knee is locked when we try to move it. This is because the soft tissue is no longer elastic and able to reduce friction like it was in its healthy condition and can no longer accommodate smooth movements.

Once the knee becomes locked, we will not be able to twist or rotate our knees due the pain and stiffness. The area will get swollen and the swell might spread to our whole leg. If we try to straighten our leg, it is will be very difficult and painful due to the swelling.

Are There Any First Aid Treatments for Knee Injuries?

If we find ourselves, our loved ones or anyone at all having to face this situation, the first thing that we can do to help is to provide them some ways to cool the joints and then support the knee with bandages to reduce pressure on the injured area. The next best course of action is to find a general practitioner to check the seriousness of the injury. If it is proved to be serious, then some immediate measures will be suggested by the doctors to repair or treat the injury.

Can a Meniscus Injury Heal by Itself?

Some of us probably afraid about the prospect of going to see a doctor, especially if it involves surgery. But is it necessary for a torn or injured meniscus to be treated with surgery? In fact, it is not. While the best time for injured or torn meniscus to be operated on is as soon as it was found to be in the condition, the meniscus can heal itself if the injury affects only one-third of the outermost layer of the meniscus.

However, only a doctor can determine how bad is an injury. Hence, always visit the doctor and seek advice from experts before it becomes worse, even if you think the injury is too minor to worry about.

Meniscus Repair: How It is Done and Prevention of Meniscus Injury

Your doctor delivers you his findings based on your MRI test result. Your meniscus tear is diagnosed as Grade 3 and found to be severe. Thus, there is no chances for it to heal itself like you always heard among your friends. Luckily, it does not need total or even partial removal. Your torn meniscus only requires a minimal surgery, called an arthroscopic repair. This is because the tear is not deformed and without any secondary degeneration yet, which will be a different story altogether.

Now, most of us know that meniscus repair procedure is not an invasive surgery, but you cannot imagine how it is going to be done through that small incision, and what it takes to prevent similar injuries in the future.

Meniscal Fixation or Fixing Your Meniscus

As with any other repair procedure, the main aim is to reconstruct or rebuilt the injured part, and in your case, it is the torn meniscus. The truth is, the term is quite misleading, because a torn meniscus is irreparable. The procedure only involves a fixation, made available by development of medical technology.

The fixation requires that the tear be ‘stitched’ with something. The doctors will use fixation devices that act as fasteners such as darts, screws, or arrows. This device will hold the torn parts together and over time it will be absorbed by the body. The procedure is securely done through a small incision at the knee area, and with the assistance of an instrument called arthroscope. With a tiny camera and source of light at the end of the instrument, the doctor can administer the treatment.

If you worry about the side effects of meniscus surgery or whether it will affect your active lifestyle afterwards, you might find relief in knowing that latest advancement in medical technology has made available the kinds of fixation devices that allow for tension around the repaired area. Additionally, the fixation device is now more flexible and can move along with the meniscus when you are moving, hence reducing the risk of future injury at the same spot.

How to Prevent Meniscus Injury

After surgery and recovery period of about three months, you may start exercising regularly to strengthen your muscle and tissue, hence strengthening your knee and meniscus area. Never forget to warm up sufficiently before each exercise session so that your body can tune up to oncoming pressure and force.

However, make sure that your body gets ample rests between heavy exercise days because it will need time to repair itself. Find yourself suitable shoes for your activities so that it may support your body and movements. If you want to increase the intensity of your workout, do it gradually, not abruptly.

Nevertheless, it is highly recommended that you seek your doctor’s advice first before returning to your routine especially if you are involved in contact sports such as hockey, rugby and football, or enjoy vigorous recreational activities like hiking or climbing. Although most younger patients can be active again without much concerns after meniscus surgery, your condition may be different from others.

Emails and Cyber security

Free email accounts provided by services like Google, Yahoo, Rediffmail or Hotmail are very useful for correspondences. They have the largest number of users around the world. Not only do these free email providers make sharing of emails easier but they also provide additional features such as sharing anything in the form of attachments, more storage space, spam filtering and protection from certain kinds of viruses.

Because these are free accounts, online cyber security in Singapore is not guaranteed at all times. Here are some tips that you should keep in mind while downloading, opening or sharing emails and attachments.

Verify source – Always check the source of the mail. If the sender’s address is not familiar or trustworthy, it is best not to open that attachment. Spam emails or Spoof emails should at best be deleted without opening. If the email looks suspicious do not open it at any cost.

Keep software updated – Use reliable anti-virus software, malwares, and spywares on your computer. Update these continuously so that the protection provided by them is always up to date. Activate firewalls to get internet protection. Enable the option of automatically updating these anti-viruses on your operating system.

Cancel automatic downloads – Many email providers provide their users with the option of automatically downloading email attachments. If possible turn off this option. This would prevent viruses from affecting your computer.

Save and Scan – Always scan any kind of an attachment before opening or downloading it on to your computer. Scan the file using your computer’s own anti-virus software. Remove any viruses detected and then open the attachment.

Use separate accounts – It is advisable to have separate accounts for different purposes. Have an account for exchanging business emails and another for exchanging correspondences with your family and friends. Because business emails are sent by outsiders and from different service providers, they are more likely to have viruses that can affect your computer.

Use additional security – An effective way of maintaining email security is using certain filters and marking certain unwanted emails as ‘spam’. Block certain addresses to reduce spam emails. The spam tagging feature helps the user to review suspected emails before deleting them. Once marked as spam, those emails will not be delivered to your account as primary mail.

Be careful – Lastly, be a careful and considerate user. Do not share your details (password, email id) with anyone and everyone. Also do not share suspicious emails.

Advanced Excel – Linking, Moving / Copying and Protecting Spreadsheets

If you have a workbook with multiple spreadsheets; linking, moving or copying spreadsheets is very useful.

Linking spreadsheets helps you to access and reference data contained elsewhere in a workbook. For example, there is a spreadsheet with the data of the quarterly expenditures of your department and another spreadsheet with the total expenditures of your department. If these two spreadsheets are linked, updating the data on any one would automatically update the other one.

* Open the two spreadsheets. Select the cells in the source location (one with the quarterly expenditures) that has to be linked with the target spreadsheet (one with the total expenditure).

* Right click on the selected cells. Click Copy on the menu that appears.

* Go to the target location and select the cells where the source data has to be pasted.

* Right click on the selected cells. Click on the Paste Link icon.

Now, whenever the source data is updated the target location will automatically get updated.

Moving or Copying spreadsheets in a workbook is possible.

* On the bottom of the spreadsheet, right click the spreadsheet tab you want to move.

* On the menu that appears, click on Move or Copy.

* Go to Before Sheet on the Move or Copy window that appears. Select where you want to move the currently selected spreadsheet. Then click OK. The spreadsheet will now be placed before the selected position.

* If you want to copy the selected spreadsheet to a different location, click on the Create a Copy checkbox under Before Sheet in the Move or Copy window. Click OK. A copy of the spreadsheet is now available in the desired location.

Protecting spreadsheets is done by locking them.

* Go to Review and click on Protect Sheet. On the Protect Sheet window select Protect worksheet and contents of locked cell.

* Enter a chosen password. Click OK.

Spreadsheets can be partially protected as well, i.e. it allows others to make certain edits to certain cells.

* Select the cells you want other users to edit and Right click on them.

* Click on Format Cells … on the menu that appears.

* Click on Protection on the window that appears.

* Uncheck the Locked checkbox. Click OK.

* Now lock the spreadsheet following the Protecting spreadsheets guide.

* Check Select unlocked cells. Click OK. Only the unlocked cells can now be edited.

You can learn this and a lot more if you enroll yourself in a Microsoft Excel training course.